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Periodontal disease and Heart Attack

Gum disease can casuse problems beyond your imagination. The following studies show that periodontal (gum disease) disease increases your chances to have a heart attack.

1996 :- It is our central hypothesis that periodontal diseases, which are chronic Gram-negative infections, represent a previously unrecognized risk factor for atherosclerosis and thromboembolic events. Previous studies have demonstrated an association between periodontal disease severity and risk of coronary heart disease and stroke. We hypothesize that this association may be due to an underlying inflammatory response trait, which places an individual at high risk for developing both periodontal disease and atherosclerosis. We further suggest that periodontal disease, once established, provides a biological burden of endotoxin (lipopolysaccharide) and inflammatory cytokines (especially TxA2, IL-1 beta, PGE2, and TNF-alpha) which serve to initiate and exacerbate atherogenesis and thromboembolic events. A cohort study was conducted using combined data from the Normative Aging Study and the Dental Longitudinal Study sponsored by the United States Department of Veterans Affairs. Mean bone loss scores and worst probing pocket depth scores per tooth were measured on ,147 men during 1968 to 1971. Information gathered during follow-up examinations showed that 207 men developed coronary heart disease (CHD), 59 died of CHD, and 40 had strokes. Incidence odds ratios adjusted for established cardiovascular risk factors were 1.5, 1.9, and 2.8 for bone loss and total CHD, fatal CHD, and stroke, respectively. Levels of bone loss and cumulative incidence of total CHD and fatal CHD indicated a biologic gradient between severity of exposure and occurrence of disease.  this is from Reference:  Beck J; Garcia R; Heiss G; Vokonas PS; Offenbacher S ;Periodontal disease and cardiovascular disease. J Periodontol, 67(10 Suppl):1123-37 1996 Oct ;


Reference : R. Genco, S. Chadda, S. Grossi, R. Dunford, G. Taylor, W. Knowler, D.Pettit; Periodontal Disease Is A Predictor of Cardiovascular Disease In A Native American Population; Supported by USPHS Grant No. DE0498.

We investigated the association between periodontal infection and risk of cardiovascular disease (CVD) in the Native Americans of the Gila River Indian Community, a group known to have a high prevalence of diabetes mellitus. Their periodontal status was assessed at baseline using tooth loss and alveolar bone level (Shlossman et al, JADA 121, 531, 1990), and cardiovascular status was assessed at follow-up for up to 10 years using the Pooling Project criteria for electrocardiograms (Pooling Project Research Group, J Chronic Dis 31,201, 1978). In 1,372 Native Americans , 68 cases of incident CVD occurred during the study. Periodontal disease, age, diabetes, cholesterol, hypertension, and insulin usage were individually important predictors of CVD. However, in a multivariate model, only age was significant when the entire population was considered. Hence, we analyzed those under age 60 and found in a univariate analysis that baseline measures if diabetes, periodontal disease, age, gender, hypertension, and insulin usage were associated with subsequent CVD. In this group , in the multivariate model, periodontal disease was a significant predictor of CVD(P=0.02). A stepwise logistic regression analysis on those < y showed periodontal disease (OR 2.68 95% CI 1.30, 5.5)gender (male) (OR 1.83 95% CI 1.00, 3.35) and duration (10 years) of diabetes (OR 1.60 95% CI 1.00, 2.57) provided the best model to predict future cardiovascular disease. This study provides evidence in a population with a high prevalence of diabetes mellitus, that periodontal disease is a predictor of cardiovascular disease.

Year 1994:  A preliminary analysis of our own investigation of the interrelationship of medical and dental health shows that individuals with a high dental morbidity (ie, edentulous or with many missing teeth) have a high prevalence of coronary heart disease and stroke. A model based on how smoking can predispose to periodontal disease is used to explain how periodontal disease could be a potential risk factor for heart disease.

Ref: Loesche WJ ;Periodontal disease as a risk factor for heart disease. ;Compendium, 15(8):976, 978-82, 985-6 passim; quiz 992 1994 Aug

Also read:
Gum Diseases
Gum Disease can lead to Preterm Birth


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